Having decided to feed the birds in your garden you need to make a series of decisions. These primarily depend on your budget, and what sort of birds you’re hoping to attract. 
If you aim is to attract small seed eaters (finches, sparrows and tits) then your best bet is to buy a spherical feeder and fill it with sunflower hearts. If this is out of your budget cheaper options are available, including whole sunflower seeds and various feeder mixes which are designed to appeal to small birds. All these species, and larger birds like starlings, can also be attracted by peanuts, usually served in a feeder. Please note garden birds shouldn’t be fed salted peanuts. 
Some birds are particularly keen on speciality foods. Most prominently both goldfinches and siskins are extremely fond of niger seed, which should be put in a specialised feeder. Other birds, particularly large species such as pigeons and doves, are happy to eat most seeds. As a result its usually not financially sensible to put expensive seed, like sunflower husks, where these bigger birds can get to them easily. Better to provide cheap corn or ground seed to satisfy these species. 
During the breeding season, broadly March-May, you may like to experiment with live food. A number of small worms can be purchased commercially in bulk, which appeal to birds which have babies to feed. Of these the most popular are mealworms, which are easy to store and serve as a great source of natural food for birds. You might want to put the mealworms in a mesh cage, to stop them being consumed in one go by larger species such as starlings. 
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